# NOT

NOT is a boolean logical operator that will change a false statement to a true one and vice-versa.

## Syntax

*True*= -1:*False*= NOT True

## Description

- In QBasic, True = -1 and False = 0 in boolean logic and evaluation statements.
- NOT evaluates a value and returns the bitwise opposite, meaning that NOT 0 = -1.
- Often called a negative logic operator, it returns the opposite of a value as true or false.
- Values are changed by their bit values so that each bit is changed to the opposite of on or off. See example 3 below.

**Relational Operators:**

Symbol | Condition | Example Usage |
---|---|---|

= | Equal | IF a = b THEN |

<> | NOT equal | IF a <> b THEN |

< | Less than | IF a < b THEN |

> | Greater than | IF a > b THEN |

<= | Less than or equal | IF a <= b THEN |

>= | Greater than or equal | IF a >= b THEN |

*A*and

*B*are operands, and

*T*and

*F*indicate that a bit is set or not set:

Operands Operations A B `NOT B``A AND B``A OR B``A XOR B``A EQV B``A IMP B`T T F T T F T T T F T F T T F F F T F F T T F T F F T F F F T T

**Relational Operations return negative one (-1, all bits set) and zero (0, no bits set) for**

*true*and*false*, respectively.

## Examples

*Example 1:* Alternating between two conditions in a program loop.

DO switch = NOT switch 'NOT changes value from -1 to 0 and vice-versa LOCATE 10, 38 IF switch THEN PRINT "True!" ELSE PRINT "False" SLEEP k$ = INKEY$ LOOP UNTIL k$ = CHR$(27) ' escape key quit

*Example 2:* Reading a file until it reaches the End Of File.

DO WHILE NOT EOF(1)
INPUT #1, data1, data2, data3
LOOP * *

*Explanation:*EOF will return 0 until a file ends. NOT converts 0 to -1 so that the loop continues to run. When EOF becomes -1, NOT converts it to 0 to end the loop.

*Example 3:* So why does **NOT 5 = -6**? Because NOT changes every bit of a value into the opposite:

PRINT NOT 5
PRINT
ReadBits 5
ReadBits -6
SUB ReadBits (n AS INTEGER) 'change type value and i bit reads for other whole type values
FOR i = 15 TO 0 STEP -1 'see the 16 bit values
IF n AND 2 ^ i THEN PRINT "1"; ELSE PRINT "0";
NEXT
PRINT
END SUB * *

-6 0000000000000101 1111111111111010

*Explanation:*The bit values of an INTEGER are 2 _BYTEs and each bit is an exponent of 2 from 15 to 0 (16 bits). Thus comparing the numerical value with those exponents using AND reveals the bit values as "1" for bits on or "0" for bits off as text.

'16 bit INTEGER values from -32768 to 32767 a% = &B0000000000000101 PRINT a% b% = &B1111111111111010 PRINT b% '8 bit BYTE values from -128 to 127 a%% = &B00000101 PRINT a%% b%% = &B11111010 PRINT b%%

## See also

*Navigation:*