_MAPTRIANGLE

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The _MAPTRIANGLE statement maps a triangular portion of an image onto a destination image or screen page.


Syntax

2D drawing

_MAPTRIANGLE [{_SEAMLESS}] (sx1, sy1)-(sx2, sy2)-(sx3, sy3), source& TO (dx1, dy1)-(dx2, dy2)-(dx3, dy3)[, destination&][{_SMOOTH|_SMOOTHSHRUNK|_SMOOTHSTRETCHED}]]


3D drawing (hardware images only)

_MAPTRIANGLE [{_CLOCKWISE|_ANTICLOCKWISE}] [{_SEAMLESS}] (sx1, sy1)-(sx2, sy2)-(sx3, sy3), source& TO (dx1, dy1, dz1)-(dx2, dy2, dz2)-(dx3, dy3, dz3)[, destination&][{_SMOOTH|_SMOOTHSHRUNK|_SMOOTHSTRETCHED}]]


Parameters

  • The _SEAMLESS option makes the triangle skip the right-most and bottom-most pixels of the triangle. When you make larger objects using several triangles, there can be a "seam" where they overlap when using alpha transparency and the seam would be twice as bright. _SEAMLESS is ignored when rendering 3D content and is not yet supported when drawing 2D hardware images.
  • For 3D drawing use the _CLOCKWISE and _ANTICLOCKWISE arguments to only draw triangles in the correct direction. See Example 4.
  • Coordinates are SINGLE values where whole numbers represent the exact center of a pixel of the source texture.
  • source& and optional destination& are LONG image or screen page handles.
  • Supports an optional final argument _SMOOTH which applies linear filtering. See Example 3.
  • Use _SMOOTHSTRETCHED or _SMOOTHSHRUNK for when a pixelated/smooth effect is desirable but not both.


Description

  • This statement is used similar to _PUTIMAGE to place triangular sections of an image, but is more flexible.
  • The STEP keyword can be used to for coordinates relative to the last graphic coordinates used.
  • For 2D drawing, the destination coordinates are pixel coordinates either on-screen or on the destination image.
  • For 3D drawing, the destination coordinates represent left (-x) to right (+x), bottom (-y) to top (+y) & furthest (-z) to nearest (z=-1). The center of the screen is therefore (0,0,-1). Note that a z value of 0 will result in off-screen content. The furthest visible z value is -10,000.
  • When drawing software images coordinate positions are limited from -16383 to 16383
  • The source coordinates can be positioned outside the boundary of the source image to achieve a tiled effect.
  • If the destination& image handle is the current SCREEN page, _DEST or hardware layer, then it can be omitted.
  • Hardware images (created using mode 33 via _LOADIMAGE or _COPYIMAGE) can be used as the source or destination.


Examples

Example 1: Rotating the QB64 bee image using a rotation and zoom SUB with _MAPTRIANGLE.

SCREEN _NEWIMAGE(800, 600, 32) Image& = _LOADIMAGE("qb64_trans.png") '<<< Image from top of QB64 Forum DO CLS RotoZoom 400, 300, Image&, 1.5 + SIN(zoom), angle LOCATE 1, 1: PRINT "Angle:"; CINT(angle) PRINT "Zoom"; USING "##.###"; 1.5 + SIN(zoom) _DISPLAY angle = angle + .5: IF angle >= 360 THEN angle = angle - 360 zoom = zoom + .01 LOOP UNTIL INKEY$ <> "" END SUB RotoZoom (X AS LONG, Y AS LONG, Image AS LONG, Scale AS SINGLE, Rotation AS SINGLE) DIM px(3) AS SINGLE: DIM py(3) AS SINGLE W& = _WIDTH(Image&): H& = _HEIGHT(Image&) px(0) = -W& / 2: py(0) = -H& / 2: px(1) = -W& / 2:py(1) = H& / 2 px(2) = W& / 2: py(2) = H& / 2: px(3) = W& / 2: py(3) = -H& / 2 sinr! = SIN(-Rotation / 57.2957795131): cosr! = COS(-Rotation / 57.2957795131) FOR i& = 0 TO 3 x2& = (px(i&) * cosr! + sinr! * py(i&)) * Scale + X: y2& = (py(i&) * cosr! - px(i&) * sinr!) * Scale + Y px(i&) = x2&: py(i&) = y2& NEXT _MAPTRIANGLE (0, 0)-(0, H& - 1)-(W& - 1, H& - 1), Image& TO(px(0), py(0))-(px(1), py(1))-(px(2), py(2)) _MAPTRIANGLE (0, 0)-(W& - 1, 0)-(W& - 1, H& - 1), Image& TO(px(0), py(0))-(px(3), py(3))-(px(2), py(2)) END SUB

Code by Galleon

Triangle sections of image in code above __ |\2| 1→|_\|


Example 2: A 3D Spinning Cube demo using the QB64 bee software image and _MAPTRIANGLE:

' Copyright (C) 2011 by Andrew L. Ayers DECLARE SUB DrawHline (fromx%, tox%, yy%, col%) DECLARE SUB DrawTriangle (x1%, y1%, x2%, y2%, x3%, y3%, col%) DIM OBJECT(9, 9, 4, 2) AS LONG ' OBJECTS DEFINED AS FOLLOWS: ' (#OBJECTS,#PLANES PER OBJECT,#POINTS PER PLANE, XYZ TRIPLE) DIM DPLANE2D(4, 1) AS LONG ' SCREEN PLANE COORDINATES ' DPLANE2D DEFINED AS FOLLOWS: ' (#POINTS PER PLANE, XY DOUBLE) DIM DPLANE3D(4, 2) AS LONG ' 3D PLANE COORDINATES ' DPLANE3D DEFINED AS FOLLOWS: ' (#POINTS PER PLANE, XYZ TRIPLE) DIM PLANECOL(9) AS INTEGER DIM STAB(359), CTAB(359) ' SINE/COSINE TABLES D& = 400: MX& = 0: MY& = 0: MZ& = -100 ' ' COMPUTE SINE/COSINE TABLES FOR t& = 0 TO 359 STAB(t&) = SIN((6.282 / 360) * t&) CTAB(t&) = COS((6.282 / 360) * t&) NEXT ' ' BUILD CUBE IN OBJECT ARRAY ' PLANE 0 OBJECT(0, 0, 0, 0) = -30: OBJECT(0, 0, 0, 1) = 30: OBJECT(0, 0, 0, 2) = -30 OBJECT(0, 0, 1, 0) = -30: OBJECT(0, 0, 1, 1) = -30: OBJECT(0, 0, 1, 2) = -30 OBJECT(0, 0, 2, 0) = 30: OBJECT(0, 0, 2, 1) = -30: OBJECT(0, 0, 2, 2) = -30 OBJECT(0, 0, 3, 0) = 30: OBJECT(0, 0, 3, 1) = 30: OBJECT(0, 0, 3, 2) = -30 OBJECT(0, 0, 4, 0) = 0: OBJECT(0, 0, 4, 1) = 0: OBJECT(0, 0, 4, 2) = -30 ' PLANE 1 OBJECT(0, 1, 0, 0) = 30: OBJECT(0, 1, 0, 1) = 30: OBJECT(0, 1, 0, 2) = -30 OBJECT(0, 1, 1, 0) = 30: OBJECT(0, 1, 1, 1) = -30: OBJECT(0, 1, 1, 2) = -30 OBJECT(0, 1, 2, 0) = 30: OBJECT(0, 1, 2, 1) = -30: OBJECT(0, 1, 2, 2) = 30 OBJECT(0, 1, 3, 0) = 30: OBJECT(0, 1, 3, 1) = 30: OBJECT(0, 1, 3, 2) = 30 OBJECT(0, 1, 4, 0) = 30: OBJECT(0, 1, 4, 1) = 0: OBJECT(0, 1, 4, 2) = 0 ' PLANE 2 OBJECT(0, 2, 0, 0) = 30: OBJECT(0, 2, 0, 1) = 30: OBJECT(0, 2, 0, 2) = 30 OBJECT(0, 2, 1, 0) = 30: OBJECT(0, 2, 1, 1) = -30: OBJECT(0, 2, 1, 2) = 30 OBJECT(0, 2, 2, 0) = -30: OBJECT(0, 2, 2, 1) = -30: OBJECT(0, 2, 2, 2) = 30 OBJECT(0, 2, 3, 0) = -30: OBJECT(0, 2, 3, 1) = 30: OBJECT(0, 2, 3, 2) = 30 OBJECT(0, 2, 4, 0) = 0: OBJECT(0, 2, 4, 1) = 0: OBJECT(0, 2, 4, 2) = 30 ' PLANE 3 OBJECT(0, 3, 0, 0) = -30: OBJECT(0, 3, 0, 1) = 30: OBJECT(0, 3, 0, 2) = 30 OBJECT(0, 3, 1, 0) = -30: OBJECT(0, 3, 1, 1) = -30: OBJECT(0, 3, 1, 2) = 30 OBJECT(0, 3, 2, 0) = -30: OBJECT(0, 3, 2, 1) = -30: OBJECT(0, 3, 2, 2) = -30 OBJECT(0, 3, 3, 0) = -30: OBJECT(0, 3, 3, 1) = 30: OBJECT(0, 3, 3, 2) = -30 OBJECT(0, 3, 4, 0) = -30: OBJECT(0, 3, 4, 1) = 0: OBJECT(0, 3, 4, 2) = 0 ' PLANE 4 OBJECT(0, 4, 0, 0) = -30: OBJECT(0, 4, 0, 1) = -30: OBJECT(0, 4, 0, 2) = -30 OBJECT(0, 4, 1, 0) = -30: OBJECT(0, 4, 1, 1) = -30: OBJECT(0, 4, 1, 2) = 30 OBJECT(0, 4, 2, 0) = 30: OBJECT(0, 4, 2, 1) = -30: OBJECT(0, 4, 2, 2) = 30 OBJECT(0, 4, 3, 0) = 30: OBJECT(0, 4, 3, 1) = -30: OBJECT(0, 4, 3, 2) = -30 OBJECT(0, 4, 4, 0) = 0: OBJECT(0, 4, 4, 1) = -30: OBJECT(0, 4, 4, 2) = 0 ' PLANE 5 OBJECT(0, 5, 0, 0) = -30: OBJECT(0, 5, 0, 1) = 30: OBJECT(0, 5, 0, 2) = -30 OBJECT(0, 5, 1, 0) = 30: OBJECT(0, 5, 1, 1) = 30: OBJECT(0, 5, 1, 2) = -30 OBJECT(0, 5, 2, 0) = 30: OBJECT(0, 5, 2, 1) = 30: OBJECT(0, 5, 2, 2) = 30 OBJECT(0, 5, 3, 0) = -30: OBJECT(0, 5, 3, 1) = 30: OBJECT(0, 5, 3, 2) = 30 OBJECT(0, 5, 4, 0) = 0: OBJECT(0, 5, 4, 1) = 30: OBJECT(0, 5, 4, 2) = 0 ' SET UP PLANE COLORS ON CUBE ' PLANECOL(0) = 3 PLANECOL(1) = 4 PLANECOL(2) = 5 PLANECOL(3) = 6 PLANECOL(4) = 7 PLANECOL(5) = 8 ' _TITLE "QB64 _MAPTRIANGLE CUBE DEMO" SCREEN _NEWIMAGE(800, 600, 32) TextureImage& = _LOADIMAGE("qb64_trans.png") '<<<< Image from top of QB64 Forum '_PUTIMAGE , Image& DO ' LIMIT TO 25 FPS _LIMIT 25 ' ERASE LAST IMAGE CLS ' CALCULATE POSITION OF NEW IMAGE FOR OB& = 0 TO 0 ' UP TO 9 OBJECTS SP = STAB(PIT(OB&)): CP = CTAB(PIT(OB&)) SY = STAB(YAW(OB&)): CY = CTAB(YAW(OB&)) SR = STAB(ROL(OB&)): CR = CTAB(ROL(OB&)) FOR PL& = 0 TO 5 ' CONSISTING OF UP TO 9 PLANES ' FOR PN& = 0 TO 3 ' EACH PLANE WITH UP TO 4 POINTS (#5 TO PAINT) ' ' TRANSLATE, THEN ROTATE TX& = OBJECT(OB&, PL&, PN&, 0) TY& = OBJECT(OB&, PL&, PN&, 1) TZ& = OBJECT(OB&, PL&, PN&, 2) RX& = (TZ& * CP - TY& * SP) * SY - ((TZ& * SP + TY& * CP) * SR + TX& * CR) * CY RY& = (TZ& * SP + TY& * CP) * CR - TX& * SR RZ& = (TZ& * CP - TY& * SP) * CY + ((TZ& * SP + TY& * CP) * SR + TX& * CR) * SY ' ' ROTATE, THEN TRANSLATE RX& = RX& + MX& RY& = RY& + MY& RZ& = RZ& + MZ& ' DPLANE3D(PN&, 0) = RX&: DPLANE3D(PN&, 1) = RY&: DPLANE3D(PN&, 2) = RZ& DPLANE2D(PN&, 0) = 399 + (D& * RX& / RZ&) DPLANE2D(PN&, 1) = 299 + (D& * RY& / RZ&) NEXT ' ' CHECK TO SEE IF PLANE IS VISIBLE x1& = DPLANE3D(0, 0): y1& = DPLANE3D(0, 1): Z1& = DPLANE3D(0, 2) x2& = DPLANE3D(1, 0): y2& = DPLANE3D(1, 1): Z2& = DPLANE3D(1, 2) x3& = DPLANE3D(2, 0): y3& = DPLANE3D(2, 1): Z3& = DPLANE3D(2, 2) T1& = -x1& * (y2& * Z3& - y3& * Z2&) T2& = x2& * (y3& * Z1& - y1& * Z3&) T3& = x3& * (y1& * Z2& - y2& * Z1&) ' VISIBLE& = T1& - T2& - T3& IF VISIBLE& > 0 THEN ' DRAW PLANE xx1% = DPLANE2D(0, 0): yy1% = DPLANE2D(0, 1) xx2% = DPLANE2D(1, 0): yy2% = DPLANE2D(1, 1) xx3% = DPLANE2D(2, 0): yy3% = DPLANE2D(2, 1) col% = PLANECOL(PL&) _MAPTRIANGLE (0, 0)-(0, 255)-(255, 255), TextureImage& TO(xx3%, yy3%)-(xx2%, yy2%)-(xx1%, yy1%) ' CALL DrawTriangle(xx1%, yy1%, xx2%, yy2%, xx3%, yy3%, col%) xx1% = DPLANE2D(0, 0): yy1% = DPLANE2D(0, 1) xx3% = DPLANE2D(2, 0): yy3% = DPLANE2D(2, 1) xx4% = DPLANE2D(3, 0): yy4% = DPLANE2D(3, 1) _MAPTRIANGLE (0, 0)-(255, 255)-(255, 0), TextureImage& TO(xx3%, yy3%)-(xx1%, yy1%)-(xx4%, yy4%) 'CALL DrawTriangle(xx1%, yy1%, xx3%, yy3%, xx4%, yy4%, col%) END IF NEXT ' ' ROTATE OBJECT PIT(OB&) = PIT(OB&) + 5 IF PIT(OB&) > 359 THEN PIT(OB&) = 0 YAW(OB&) = YAW(OB&) + 7 IF YAW(OB&) > 359 THEN YAW(OB&) = 0 ROL(OB&) = ROL(OB&) + 9 IF ROL(OB&) > 359 THEN ROL(OB&) = 0 NEXT ' ' Calculate Frames per Second frames% = frames% + 1 IF oldtime$ <> TIME$ THEN fps% = frames% frames% = 1 oldtime$ = TIME$ END IF COLOR _RGB(255, 255, 255): LOCATE 1, 1: PRINT "FPS :"; fps% ' ' Show Image on Screen _DISPLAY LOOP UNTIL INKEY$ <> "" WIDTH 80: SCREEN 0: CLS SUB DrawHline (fromx%, tox%, yy%, col%) 'DEF SEG = &HA000 'IF fromx% > tox% THEN SWAP fromx%, tox% 'yyy& = yy% 'sloc& = yyy& * 320 + fromx% 'eloc& = sloc& + (tox% - fromx%) 'FOR t& = sloc& TO eloc& ' POKE t&, col% 'NEXT 'DEF SEG LINE (fromx%, yy%)-(tox%, yy%), _RGB(255, 255, 255) 'col% END SUB SUB DrawTriangle (x1%, y1%, x2%, y2%, x3%, y3%, col%) DO sflag% = 0 IF y1% > y2% THEN sflag% = 1 SWAP y1%, y2% SWAP x1%, x2% END IF IF y2% > y3% THEN sflag% = 1 SWAP y2%, y3% SWAP x2%, x3% END IF LOOP UNTIL sflag% = 0 ' IF y2% = y3% THEN ' Draw a flat bottomed triangle ydiff1% = y2% - y1% ydiff2% = y3% - y1% IF ydiff1% <> 0 THEN slope1! = (x2% - x1%) / ydiff1% ELSE slope1! = 0 END IF IF ydiff2% <> 0 THEN slope2! = (x3% - x1%) / ydiff2% ELSE slope2! = 0 END IF sx! = x1%: ex! = x1% FOR y% = y1% TO y2% CALL DrawHline(CINT(sx!), CINT(ex!), y%, col%) sx! = sx! + slope1! ex! = ex! + slope2! NEXT EXIT SUB ELSE IF y1% = y2% THEN ' ' Draw a flat topped triangle ydiff1% = y3% - y1% ydiff2% = y3% - y2% IF ydiff1% <> 0 THEN slope1! = (x3% - x1%) / ydiff1% ELSE slope1! = 0 END IF IF ydiff2% <> 0 THEN slope2! = (x3% - x2%) / ydiff2% ELSE slope2! = 0 END IF sx! = x1%: ex! = x2% FOR y% = y1% TO y3% CALL DrawHline(CINT(sx!), CINT(ex!), y%, col%) sx! = sx! + slope1! ex! = ex! + slope2! NEXT x1% = sx!: x2% = ex! EXIT SUB ELSE ' Draw a general purpose triangle ' First draw the flat bottom portion (top half) ydiff1% = y2% - y1% ydiff2% = y3% - y1% IF ydiff1% <> 0 THEN slope1! = (x2% - x1%) / ydiff1% ELSE slope1! = 0 END IF IF ydiff2% <> 0 THEN slope2! = (x3% - x1%) / ydiff2% ELSE slope2! = 0 END IF sx! = x1%: ex! = x1% FOR y% = y1% TO y2% CALL DrawHline(CINT(sx!), CINT(ex!), y%, col%) sx! = sx! + slope1! ex! = ex! + slope2! NEXT ' Then draw the flat topped portion (bottom half) x1% = x2% x2% = ex! y1% = y2% ydiff1% = y3% - y1% ydiff2% = y3% - y2% IF ydiff1% <> 0 THEN slope1! = (x3% - x1%) / ydiff1% ELSE slope1! = 0 END IF IF ydiff2% <> 0 THEN slope2! = (x3% - x2%) / ydiff2% ELSE slope2! = 0 END IF sx! = x1%: ex! = x2% FOR y% = y1% TO y3% CALL DrawHline(CINT(sx!), CINT(ex!), y%, col%) sx! = sx! + slope1! ex! = ex! + slope2! NEXT x1% = sx!: x2% = ex! END IF END IF ' END SUB

Demo by Andrew L. Ayers


Example 3: A 3D Spinning Cube demo using the QB64 bee hardware image and QB64GL hardware acceleration with _MAPTRIANGLE:

' Copyright (C) 2011 by Andrew L. Ayers DECLARE SUB DrawHline (fromx%, tox%, yy%, col%) DECLARE SUB DrawTriangle (x1%, y1%, x2%, y2%, x3%, y3%, col%) DIM OBJECT(9, 9, 4, 2) AS LONG ' OBJECTS DEFINED AS FOLLOWS: ' (#OBJECTS,#PLANES PER OBJECT,#POINTS PER PLANE, XYZ TRIPLE) DIM DPLANE2D(4, 1) AS LONG ' SCREEN PLANE COORDINATES ' DPLANE2D DEFINED AS FOLLOWS: ' (#POINTS PER PLANE, XY DOUBLE) DIM DPLANE3D(4, 2) AS LONG ' 3D PLANE COORDINATES ' DPLANE3D DEFINED AS FOLLOWS: ' (#POINTS PER PLANE, XYZ TRIPLE) DIM PLANECOL(9) AS INTEGER DIM STAB(359), CTAB(359) ' SINE/COSINE TABLES D& = 400: MX& = 0: MY& = 0: MZ& = -100 ' ' COMPUTE SINE/COSINE TABLES FOR t& = 0 TO 359 STAB(t&) = SIN((6.282 / 360) * t&) CTAB(t&) = COS((6.282 / 360) * t&) NEXT ' ' BUILD CUBE IN OBJECT ARRAY ' PLANE 0 OBJECT(0, 0, 0, 0) = -30: OBJECT(0, 0, 0, 1) = 30: OBJECT(0, 0, 0, 2) = -30 OBJECT(0, 0, 1, 0) = -30: OBJECT(0, 0, 1, 1) = -30: OBJECT(0, 0, 1, 2) = -30 OBJECT(0, 0, 2, 0) = 30: OBJECT(0, 0, 2, 1) = -30: OBJECT(0, 0, 2, 2) = -30 OBJECT(0, 0, 3, 0) = 30: OBJECT(0, 0, 3, 1) = 30: OBJECT(0, 0, 3, 2) = -30 OBJECT(0, 0, 4, 0) = 0: OBJECT(0, 0, 4, 1) = 0: OBJECT(0, 0, 4, 2) = -30 ' PLANE 1 OBJECT(0, 1, 0, 0) = 30: OBJECT(0, 1, 0, 1) = 30: OBJECT(0, 1, 0, 2) = -30 OBJECT(0, 1, 1, 0) = 30: OBJECT(0, 1, 1, 1) = -30: OBJECT(0, 1, 1, 2) = -30 OBJECT(0, 1, 2, 0) = 30: OBJECT(0, 1, 2, 1) = -30: OBJECT(0, 1, 2, 2) = 30 OBJECT(0, 1, 3, 0) = 30: OBJECT(0, 1, 3, 1) = 30: OBJECT(0, 1, 3, 2) = 30 OBJECT(0, 1, 4, 0) = 30: OBJECT(0, 1, 4, 1) = 0: OBJECT(0, 1, 4, 2) = 0 ' PLANE 2 OBJECT(0, 2, 0, 0) = 30: OBJECT(0, 2, 0, 1) = 30: OBJECT(0, 2, 0, 2) = 30 OBJECT(0, 2, 1, 0) = 30: OBJECT(0, 2, 1, 1) = -30: OBJECT(0, 2, 1, 2) = 30 OBJECT(0, 2, 2, 0) = -30: OBJECT(0, 2, 2, 1) = -30: OBJECT(0, 2, 2, 2) = 30 OBJECT(0, 2, 3, 0) = -30: OBJECT(0, 2, 3, 1) = 30: OBJECT(0, 2, 3, 2) = 30 OBJECT(0, 2, 4, 0) = 0: OBJECT(0, 2, 4, 1) = 0: OBJECT(0, 2, 4, 2) = 30 ' PLANE 3 OBJECT(0, 3, 0, 0) = -30: OBJECT(0, 3, 0, 1) = 30: OBJECT(0, 3, 0, 2) = 30 OBJECT(0, 3, 1, 0) = -30: OBJECT(0, 3, 1, 1) = -30: OBJECT(0, 3, 1, 2) = 30 OBJECT(0, 3, 2, 0) = -30: OBJECT(0, 3, 2, 1) = -30: OBJECT(0, 3, 2, 2) = -30 OBJECT(0, 3, 3, 0) = -30: OBJECT(0, 3, 3, 1) = 30: OBJECT(0, 3, 3, 2) = -30 OBJECT(0, 3, 4, 0) = -30: OBJECT(0, 3, 4, 1) = 0: OBJECT(0, 3, 4, 2) = 0 ' PLANE 4 OBJECT(0, 4, 0, 0) = -30: OBJECT(0, 4, 0, 1) = -30: OBJECT(0, 4, 0, 2) = -30 OBJECT(0, 4, 1, 0) = -30: OBJECT(0, 4, 1, 1) = -30: OBJECT(0, 4, 1, 2) = 30 OBJECT(0, 4, 2, 0) = 30: OBJECT(0, 4, 2, 1) = -30: OBJECT(0, 4, 2, 2) = 30 OBJECT(0, 4, 3, 0) = 30: OBJECT(0, 4, 3, 1) = -30: OBJECT(0, 4, 3, 2) = -30 OBJECT(0, 4, 4, 0) = 0: OBJECT(0, 4, 4, 1) = -30: OBJECT(0, 4, 4, 2) = 0 ' PLANE 5 OBJECT(0, 5, 0, 0) = -30: OBJECT(0, 5, 0, 1) = 30: OBJECT(0, 5, 0, 2) = -30 OBJECT(0, 5, 1, 0) = 30: OBJECT(0, 5, 1, 1) = 30: OBJECT(0, 5, 1, 2) = -30 OBJECT(0, 5, 2, 0) = 30: OBJECT(0, 5, 2, 1) = 30: OBJECT(0, 5, 2, 2) = 30 OBJECT(0, 5, 3, 0) = -30: OBJECT(0, 5, 3, 1) = 30: OBJECT(0, 5, 3, 2) = 30 OBJECT(0, 5, 4, 0) = 0: OBJECT(0, 5, 4, 1) = 30: OBJECT(0, 5, 4, 2) = 0 ' SET UP PLANE COLORS ON CUBE ' PLANECOL(0) = 3 PLANECOL(1) = 4 PLANECOL(2) = 5 PLANECOL(3) = 6 PLANECOL(4) = 7 PLANECOL(5) = 8 ' _TITLE "QB64 _MAPTRIANGLE CUBE DEMO" SCREEN _NEWIMAGE(800, 600, 32) TextureImage& = _LOADIMAGE("qb64_trans.png", 32)'<<<< Image from top of QB64 Forum http://www.qb64.net/qb64_trans.png _SETALPHA 128, , TextureImage& TextureImage& = _COPYIMAGE(TextureImage&, 33)'copy of hardware image '_PUTIMAGE , Image& DO ' LIMIT TO 25 FPS '_LIMIT 25 ' ERASE LAST IMAGE 'CLS , _RGB(0, 0, 160) ' CALCULATE POSITION OF NEW IMAGE FOR OB& = 0 TO 0 ' UP TO 9 OBJECTS SP = STAB(PIT(OB&)): CP = CTAB(PIT(OB&)) SY = STAB(YAW(OB&)): CY = CTAB(YAW(OB&)) SR = STAB(ROL(OB&)): CR = CTAB(ROL(OB&)) FOR PL& = 0 TO 5 ' CONSISTING OF UP TO 9 PLANES ' FOR PN& = 0 TO 3 ' EACH PLANE WITH UP TO 4 POINTS (#5 TO PAINT) ' ' TRANSLATE, THEN ROTATE TX& = OBJECT(OB&, PL&, PN&, 0) TY& = OBJECT(OB&, PL&, PN&, 1) TZ& = OBJECT(OB&, PL&, PN&, 2) RX& = (TZ& * CP - TY& * SP) * SY - ((TZ& * SP + TY& * CP) * SR + TX& * CR) * CY RY& = (TZ& * SP + TY& * CP) * CR - TX& * SR RZ& = (TZ& * CP - TY& * SP) * CY + ((TZ& * SP + TY& * CP) * SR + TX& * CR) * SY ' ' ROTATE, THEN TRANSLATE RX& = RX& + MX& RY& = RY& + MY& RZ& = RZ& + MZ& ' DPLANE3D(PN&, 0) = RX&: DPLANE3D(PN&, 1) = RY&: DPLANE3D(PN&, 2) = RZ& DPLANE2D(PN&, 0) = 399 + (D& * RX& / RZ&) DPLANE2D(PN&, 1) = 299 + (D& * RY& / RZ&) NEXT ' ' CHECK TO SEE IF PLANE IS VISIBLE x1& = DPLANE3D(0, 0): y1& = DPLANE3D(0, 1): Z1& = DPLANE3D(0, 2) x2& = DPLANE3D(1, 0): y2& = DPLANE3D(1, 1): Z2& = DPLANE3D(1, 2) x3& = DPLANE3D(2, 0): y3& = DPLANE3D(2, 1): Z3& = DPLANE3D(2, 2) T1& = -x1& * (y2& * Z3& - y3& * Z2&) T2& = x2& * (y3& * Z1& - y1& * Z3&) T3& = x3& * (y1& * Z2& - y2& * Z1&) ' VISIBLE& = T1& - T2& - T3& IF VISIBLE& > 0 THEN ' DRAW PLANE xx1% = DPLANE2D(0, 0): yy1% = DPLANE2D(0, 1) xx2% = DPLANE2D(1, 0): yy2% = DPLANE2D(1, 1) xx3% = DPLANE2D(2, 0): yy3% = DPLANE2D(2, 1) col% = PLANECOL(PL&) _BLEND TextureImage& _MAPTRIANGLE (0, 0)-(0, 255)-(255, 255), TextureImage& TO(xx1%, yy1%)-(xx2%, yy2%)-(xx3%, yy3%) ' CALL DrawTriangle(xx1%, yy1%, xx2%, yy2%, xx3%, yy3%, col%) xx1% = DPLANE2D(0, 0): yy1% = DPLANE2D(0, 1) xx3% = DPLANE2D(2, 0): yy3% = DPLANE2D(2, 1) xx4% = DPLANE2D(3, 0): yy4% = DPLANE2D(3, 1) _DONTBLEND TextureImage& _MAPTRIANGLE (0, 0)-(255, 255)-(255, 0), TextureImage& TO(xx3%, yy3%)-(xx1%, yy1%)-(xx4%, yy4%), , _SMOOTH 'CALL DrawTriangle(xx1%, yy1%, xx3%, yy3%, xx4%, yy4%, col%) END IF NEXT ' ' ROTATE OBJECT PIT(OB&) = PIT(OB&) + 5 IF PIT(OB&) > 359 THEN PIT(OB&) = 0 YAW(OB&) = YAW(OB&) + 7 IF YAW(OB&) > 359 THEN YAW(OB&) = 0 ROL(OB&) = ROL(OB&) + 9 IF ROL(OB&) > 359 THEN ROL(OB&) = 0 NEXT ' ' Calculate Frames per Second frames% = frames% + 1 IF oldtime$ <> TIME$ THEN fps% = frames% frames% = 1 oldtime$ = TIME$ END IF COLOR _RGB(255, 255, 255): LOCATE 1, 1: PRINT "FPS :"; fps% ' ' Show Image on Screen _DISPLAY LOOP UNTIL INKEY$ <> "" WIDTH 80: SCREEN 0: CLS SUB DrawHline (fromx%, tox%, yy%, col%) 'DEF SEG = &HA000 'IF fromx% > tox% THEN SWAP fromx%, tox% 'yyy& = yy% 'sloc& = yyy& * 320 + fromx% 'eloc& = sloc& + (tox% - fromx%) 'FOR t& = sloc& TO eloc& ' POKE t&, col% 'NEXT 'DEF SEG LINE (fromx%, yy%)-(tox%, yy%), _RGB(255, 255, 255) 'col% END SUB SUB DrawTriangle (x1%, y1%, x2%, y2%, x3%, y3%, col%) DO sflag% = 0 IF y1% > y2% THEN sflag% = 1 SWAP y1%, y2% SWAP x1%, x2% END IF IF y2% > y3% THEN sflag% = 1 SWAP y2%, y3% SWAP x2%, x3% END IF LOOP UNTIL sflag% = 0 ' IF y2% = y3% THEN ' Draw a flat bottomed triangle ydiff1% = y2% - y1% ydiff2% = y3% - y1% IF ydiff1% <> 0 THEN slope1! = (x2% - x1%) / ydiff1% ELSE slope1! = 0 END IF IF ydiff2% <> 0 THEN slope2! = (x3% - x1%) / ydiff2% ELSE slope2! = 0 END IF sx! = x1%: ex! = x1% FOR y% = y1% TO y2% CALL DrawHline(CINT(sx!), CINT(ex!), y%, col%) sx! = sx! + slope1! ex! = ex! + slope2! NEXT EXIT SUB ELSE IF y1% = y2% THEN ' ' Draw a flat topped triangle ydiff1% = y3% - y1% ydiff2% = y3% - y2% IF ydiff1% <> 0 THEN slope1! = (x3% - x1%) / ydiff1% ELSE slope1! = 0 END IF IF ydiff2% <> 0 THEN slope2! = (x3% - x2%) / ydiff2% ELSE slope2! = 0 END IF sx! = x1%: ex! = x2% FOR y% = y1% TO y3% CALL DrawHline(CINT(sx!), CINT(ex!), y%, col%) sx! = sx! + slope1! ex! = ex! + slope2! NEXT x1% = sx!: x2% = ex! EXIT SUB ELSE ' Draw a general purpose triangle ' First draw the flat bottom portion (top half) ydiff1% = y2% - y1% ydiff2% = y3% - y1% IF ydiff1% <> 0 THEN slope1! = (x2% - x1%) / ydiff1% ELSE slope1! = 0 END IF IF ydiff2% <> 0 THEN slope2! = (x3% - x1%) / ydiff2% ELSE slope2! = 0 END IF sx! = x1%: ex! = x1% FOR y% = y1% TO y2% CALL DrawHline(CINT(sx!), CINT(ex!), y%, col%) sx! = sx! + slope1! ex! = ex! + slope2! NEXT ' Then draw the flat topped portion (bottom half) x1% = x2% x2% = ex! y1% = y2% ydiff1% = y3% - y1% ydiff2% = y3% - y2% IF ydiff1% <> 0 THEN slope1! = (x3% - x1%) / ydiff1% ELSE slope1! = 0 END IF IF ydiff2% <> 0 THEN slope2! = (x3% - x2%) / ydiff2% ELSE slope2! = 0 END IF sx! = x1%: ex! = x2% FOR y% = y1% TO y3% CALL DrawHline(CINT(sx!), CINT(ex!), y%, col%) sx! = sx! + slope1! ex! = ex! + slope2! NEXT x1% = sx!: x2% = ex! END IF END IF ' END SUB

Adapted from a demo by Andrew L. Ayers


Example 4: Using a desktop image with _MAPTRIANGLE _ANTICLOCKWISE rendering.

SCREEN _NEWIMAGE(800, 600, 32) ss32 = _SCREENIMAGE 'take a 32bit software screenshot _SETALPHA 128, , ss32 'make it a bit transparent ss33 = _COPYIMAGE(ss32, 33) 'convert it to a hardware image (mode 33) _FREEIMAGE ss32 'we don't need this anymore DO CLS , _RGB(0, 128, 255) 'use our software screen as a blue backdrop 'rotate our destination points 'the QB64 3D co-ordinate system is the same as OpenGL's: ' negative z is in front of you, if it doesn't have a negative z value you won't see it! ' x goes from left to right, 0 is the middle of the screen ' y goes from bottom to top, 0 is the middle of the screen scale = 10 dist = -10 angle = angle + 0.1 x1 = SIN(angle) * scale z1 = COS(angle) * scale x2 = SIN(angle + 3.14) * scale 'adding 3.14 adds 180 degrees z2 = COS(angle + 3.14) * scale 'what we performed above is a 2D/horizontal rotation of points '(3D rotations are beyond the scope of this example) 'draw the triangle '_ANTICLOCKWISE makes it only draw when our triangle is facing the correct direction '_SMOOTH applies linear filtering to avoid a pixelated look _MAPTRIANGLE _ANTICLOCKWISE (_WIDTH(ss33) / 2, 0)-(0, _HEIGHT(ss33))-(_WIDTH(ss33),_ _HEIGHT(ss33)), ss33 TO(0, scale, dist)-(x1, -scale, z1 + dist)-(x2, -scale, z2 + dist), , _SMOOTH _LIMIT 30 _DISPLAY LOOP

Tip: If you are using Linux you might want to replace "_SCREENIMAGE" with a _LOADIMAGE command if you don't see anything.


See also



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